The need to fight a defensive war Establishing the responsibility for the escalation of the July Crisis into a European war – and ultimately a world war – was paramount even before fighting had begun. The governments of Great Britain, France, Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary tried desperately to ensure that they did not appear to be the aggressor in July and August 1914.
This was crucial because the vast armies of soldiers that would be needed to fight this war could not be summoned for a war of aggression.
Socialists, of whom there were many millions by 1914, would not have supported a belligerent foreign policy, and could only be relied upon to fight in a defensive war Free Essay: World War I, also known as the First World War, was a global war it can help you perform under pressure and motivate you to do your best..
Populations would only rally and make sacrifices willingly if the cause was just – and that meant fighting a defensive war. The French and Belgians, Russians, Serbs and British were convinced they were indeed involved in a defensive struggle for just aims.
Austrians and Hungarians were fighting to revenge the death of Franz Ferdinand. Germans were assured by their Kaiser, Wilhelm II, and their Chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg, that Germany’s neighbours had ‘forced the sword’ into its hands.
1 In 1914, Germans were certain that they had not started the war. But if not they (who had after all invaded Belgium and France in the first few weeks of fighting), then who had caused this war?German satirical map of Europe in 1914Satirical map of Europe drawn by German graphic artist Walter Trier in 1914, showing Germany and Austria-Hungary as images from this item (1) From the victors’ war guilt ruling to a comfortable interwar consensusFor the victors, this was an easy question to answer, and they agreed at the peace conference at Paris in 1919 that Germany and its allies had been responsible for causing the Great War.
Based on this decision, which was embodied in Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, vast reparations would be payable.
This so-called ‘war guilt ruling’ set the tone for the long debate that followed on the causes of the war 29 Jan 2014 - Britain could have lived with a German victory in the first world war, and should have stayed out of the conflict in 1914, according to the historian .
From 1919 onwards, governments and historians engaged with this question as revisionists (who wanted to revise the verdict of Versailles) clashed with anti-revisionists who agreed with the victors’ assessment. Sponsored by post-war governments and with access to vast amounts of documents, revisionist historians (many, but not all, German) set about proving that the victors at Versailles had been wrong.
Countless publications and documents were made available to prove Germany’s innocence and the responsibility of others. Arguments were advanced which highlighted Russia’s and France’s responsibility for the outbreak of the war, for example, or which stressed that Britain could have played a more active role in preventing the escalation of the July Crisis.
In the interwar years, such views influenced a newly developing consensus that no longer foregrounded Germany’s war guilt, but instead identified a failure in the alliance system before 1914.
The war had not been deliberately unleashed, but Europe had somehow ‘slithered over the brink into the boiling cauldron of war’, as David Lloyd George famously put it Free Essay: WORLD WAR ONE There has always been wars, and there will the act — a factor which reassured Austria that it could move to get revenge..
2 With such a conciliatory accident theory, Germany was off the hook, and instead of remaining a former troublesome enemy could become a potential future ally against the increasingly threatening-looking Soviet Union.
The debate on the origins of the first world war - openlearn - open
Treaty of VersaillesExtract from the Versailles Treaty, stating that 'Germany accepts the responsibility . for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associated Governments and their nationals have been subjected .
What was the most significant cause of world war one? (ww1)
The first major challenge to this interpretation was advanced in Germany in the 1960s, where the historian Fritz Fischer published a startling new thesis on the origins of the war which threatened to overthrow the existing consensus.
Germany, he argued, bore the main share of responsibility for the outbreak of the war How could the death of one man, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was How did Europe get from the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife to the Fischer published a startling new thesis on the origins of the war which threatened to .
Moreover, its leaders had deliberately unleashed the war in pursuit of aggressive foreign policy aims which were startlingly similar to those pursued by Hitler in 1939. 3 Backed up by previously unknown primary evidence, this new interpretation exploded the comfortable post-war view of shared responsibility.
It made Germany responsible for unleashing not only the Second World War (of this there was no doubt), but also the First – turning Germany’s recent history into one of aggression and conquest. The German establishment, which included leading historians and politicians, reacted with outrage to Fischer’s claims.
They attempted to discredit him and his followers.
The debate on the origins of world war one - the british library
Those willing to question Germany’s recent past and those wanting to hide any potential wrong-doings by Germany’s former leaders clashed in a public dispute of unprecedented ferocity.
In time, however, many of Fischer’s ideas became accepted as a new consensus was achieved Free Essay: History Term paper What one thing do you think caused WW1? There in fact The major countries did not trust each other or get along. They were .
Most historians remained unconvinced that war had been decided upon in Germany as early as 1912 (this was one of Fischer’s controversial claims) and then deliberately provoked in 1914. Many did concede, however, that Germany seemed to have made use of the July Crisis to unleash a war.
But its government was not the only one to do so. In the wake of the Fischer controversy, historians also focused more closely on the role of Austria-Hungary in the events that led to war, and concluded that in Vienna, at least as much as in Berlin, the crisis precipitated by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was seen as a golden opportunity to try and defeat a ring of enemies that seemed to threaten the Central Powers.
New questions but no new consensusIn recent years this post-Fischer consensus has in turn been revised.
World war one: 10 interpretations of who started ww1 - bbc news
Germany’s and Austria-Hungary’s roles are deemphasised, and it is stressed that there were decision-makers in all the major capital cities who considered a general European war in August 1914 to be a risk worth taking.
After 100 years of debate, every conceivable interpretation seems to have been advanced The way historians have viewed the causes of WWI has changed in the hundred Personalise your OpenLearn profile; Save your favourite content; Get armies of soldiers that would be needed could not be summoned for a war of aggression. a startling new thesis which threatened to overthrow the existing consensus..
In some of the most recent publications, even seeking to attribute responsibility, as had so confidently been done at Versailles, is now eschewed. 5 Is it really the historian’s role to blame the actors of the past, or merely to understand how the war could have occurred? Such doubts did not trouble those who sought to attribute war guilt in 1919 and during much of this long debate, but this question will need to be asked as the controversy continues past the centenary.
The current consensus on why it broke out is ‘that there is no consensus’. 6 After 100 years of arguing about the war’s causes, this long debate is set to continue.
Controversies and Consensus (London: Pearson 2002), p The first step in the essay writing process is to write your thesis statement. This is where you will create the basis for the rest of your essay. To find tips and the .
2 David Lloyd George, 3 Fritz Fischer, Krieg der Illusionen (D sseldorf, Droste 1967), Engl.
: Germany and the Origins of the First World War (London, Chatto & Windus 1967 ) and War of Illusions (London: Chatto & Windus 1975).
4 Sean McMeekin, The Russian Origins of the First World War (Cambridge, Mass. , Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2011), idem, July 1914.
The main cause of ww1 essay - 1160 words | cram